These beautiful truncheons were used by the newly-emerging police forces in Victorian times.
Edinburgh police truncheons (19thC)
Photo by Kim Traynor via Wikimedia Commons.

Crime and punishment in 19th Century England began to take a more systematic form.
The Metropolitan Police Force was set up in 1829 by Sir Robert Peel. The police were known as “bobbies,” and they policed the streets of London.

Paid police forces gradually spread throughout England, but for much of the century a single low-paid or unpaid constable held the responsibility for keeping the peace in a parish.

Throughout the century, punishments remained harsh, with murder punished by hanging. Many lesser offences, including manslaughter, led to deportation of the criminal to Australia or New Zealand.